Open Quercetea pubescentis woodland in eastern Austria with high abundance of thermophilous shrubs (A) and various stands of seral tall-scrub of the Crataego-Prunetea (B–D). Note that the grasslands adjacent to the tall-scrub is not included in the Crataego-Prunetea but belongs to other classes such as the Festuco-Brometea, Trifolio-Geranietea, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea etc. (all photos by W. Willner).

  Part of: Willner W, Faber-Langendoen D (2021) Braun-Blanquet meets EcoVeg: a formation and division level classification of European phytosociological units. Vegetation Classification and Survey 2: 275-291.