High-montane mediterranean geocomplex. 1. High-montane pulvinate thorn shrubland & thicket: Nardophyllum lanatum-Anarthrophyllum cumingii community, with Nassauvia heterophylla, Junellia spathulata, Berberis empetrifolia, etc. High-montane mediterranean zonal vegetation on well-drained stony soils (skeletic umbrisols). 2. High-montane scree vegetation: Senecio glaber-Nicotiana corymbosa community. Skeletic regosols. 3. High-montane meadows: Colobanthus quitensis-Carex gayana community. Seasonally wet to flooded soils. 4. Aquatic vegetation: Juncus-Eleocharis communities. Shallow high-montane ponds and streams. 5. Cushion-like peatbog: Caltha sagittata-Patosia clandestina community. Permanently flooded or ponded peaty soils. 6. Chionophile subnival vegetation: Calceolaria biflora communities. Semi-permanent snowy niches cavities or depressions. 7. High-montane transition to subnival pulvinate shrubland & thicket: Anarthrophyllum gayanum-Laretia acaulis community, with Triglochin alatum, Poa holciformis, Haplopappus scrobiculatus, Chuquiraga oppositifolia. Well drained stony soils (skeletic umbrisols), associated to cryomorphic open vegetation: Chaetanthera euphrasioides community on leptic cryosols. Graphic interpretation based on our field transect data and cited references.

 
 
  Part of: Navarro G, Luebert F, Molina JA (2023) ´╗┐South American terrestrial biomes as geocomplexes: a geobotanical landscape approach. Vegetation Classification and Survey 4: 75-114. https://doi.org/10.3897/VCS.96710