High-montane evergreen páramo geocomplex. 1. Cauli-rosulate thicket: Draba interhubera-Espeletia moritziana community. Stony excessively well drained hillside soils. 2. Evergreen cauli-rosulate shrubland and bunch-grassland: Azorella juliani-Coespeletia timotensis community. Humid well-drained moraine slope soils. 3. Evergreen cauli-rosulate thicket: Espeletia alba-Espeletia spicata community. Wet poorly drained flat soils permanently saturated (umbric gleysol). 4. Meadow’s grassland: Carex amicta communities. Swamp soils (dystric anmoor). 5. Wet domed-cushion peatbog: Plantago rigida communities. Permanently flooded peaty soils (dystric histosols). 6. Páramo aquatic vegetation: Myriophyllum quitensis-Ranunculus flagelliformis communities. Poorly mineralized acidic stagnant waters. Graphic interpretation based on our field transect data and cited references.

  Part of: Navarro G, Luebert F, Molina JA (2023) South American terrestrial biomes as geocomplexes: a geobotanical landscape approach. Vegetation Classification and Survey 4: 75-114. https://doi.org/10.3897/VCS.96710