Montane evergreen and seasonal andean forest geocomplex. 1. Evergreen high-montane caulirosulate Páramo woodland and bunch-grasland: Espeletia hartwegiana, Espeletia sp. pl. Espeletiinae gen. et sp. pl. Deyeuxia effusa, Deyeuxia sp. pl., Festuca, Swalenochloa tessellata. Orotropical and criorotropical pluvial hyperhumid bioclimatic belt. 4100-4600 m. Permanently saturated to flooded peaty soils. 2. Evergreen high-montane subsclerophyllous low woodland and shrubland: Polylepis sericea-Gynoxis tolimensis-Escallonia myrtilloides communities. Low orotropical pluvial hyperhumid bioclimatic belt. 4000-4300 m. Rocky screes with water saturated humus deep pouchs. 3. Evergreen upper montane lauroid low-forest: Weinmannia mariquitae-Weinmannia tomentosa communities, and Weinmannia pubescens communities, with Weinmannia cochensis, W. microphylla, W. pinnata, W. pubescens, Clusia multiflora, Clethra fagifolia, C. minor, Myrsine dependens Qercus humboldtii, etc. Supratropical pluvial hyperhumid bioclimatic belt, on saturated or ponded moss soils (anmoor, histosols). 3200-4100 m. 4. Evergreen montane forests: Brunellia macrophylla-Weinmannia pubescens communities, with Podocarpus oleifolius, Weinmannia balbisiana, W. sorbifolia, W. tomentosa, Quercus humboldtii, Ocotea, Persea, étc. Mesotropical pluvial hyperhumid bioclimatic level. 2100-3200 m. Exposed outer mountain slopes. 5. Evergreen low-montane forests: Freziera tomentosa-Dictyocaryum lamarckianum communities with Quercus humboldtii, Billia columbiana, Prunus myrtifolia, Weinmannia pinnata. Upper termotropical pluvial hyperhumid bioclimatic belt. 1100-2100 m. Exposed outer mountain slopes. 6. Evergreen seasonal montane forest: Hyeronima colombiana-Saurauia humboldtiana communities with Clethra fagifolia, Billia columbiana, etc. Mesotropical pluviseasonal humid bioclimatic level. 2500–2600 m. Estearn mountain interandean slopes. 7. Semideciduous basimontane forest: Bursera tomentosa communities, wit: Stenocereus griseus, Pithecellobium dulce, Ochroma longipes, Toxicondendron striatum, Hirtella americana, Acacia spp., etc. Upper termotropical pluviseasonal subhumid, and xeric dry bioclimatic level. Intermontane rain shadow slopes and interandean valleys. Graphic simplified and generalized geobotanical interpretation based on above cited references, particularly Rangel and Franco (1985).

  Part of: Navarro G, Luebert F, Molina JA (2023) South American terrestrial biomes as geocomplexes: a geobotanical landscape approach. Vegetation Classification and Survey 4: 75-114.