Montane evergreen and seasonal andean forest geocomplex. 1. Evergreen seasonal basimontane forest: Cecropia montana-Heliocarpus americanus community. 1000-1800 m. Upper thermotropical pluviseasonal humid. 2. Evergreen seasonal to deciduous Andean hygrophyllous forest: Vallea stipularis-Alnus acuminata communities. Humid montane valleys and headwaters with hydric or saturated soils. Mesotropical and low supratropical edapho hygrophyllous and riparian vegetation. 3. Evergreen montane forest: Axinaea nitida-Podocarpus oleifolius community. 2500-2600 m. Mesotropical pluvial humid-hyperhumid bioclimatic level. Montane humid lauroid Yungas foresto on exposed mountain slopes and humid high-valleys. 4. Evergreen sub-sclerophyllous woodland: Barnadesia dombeyana-Polylepis racemosa community. 3300-3900 m. Supratropical pluviseasonal humid bioclimatic level. Upper-montane low forest and woodlands on interior mountain slopes. 5. High-andean bunch-grassland: Agrostis tolucensis-Paspalum bonplandianum community. 3800-4000 m. Low orotropical pluvial humid-hyperhumid bioclimatic level. Humic saturated soils of “Herbaceous Páramo”. 6. Mosaic of meadow’s grassland, wet domed-cushion Páramo peatbogs (Plantago rigida communities), and Páramo aquatic vegetation (Myriophyllum quitensis-Ranunculus flagelliformis) communities. 3900-4100 m. Orotropical pluvial hyperhumid. 7. Semideciduous shrubland and woodland: Colletia spinosissima-Kageneckia lanceolata communities. 3180-3300 m. Upper mesotropical pluviseasonal subhumid to upper dry, bioclimatic level. Upper-montane vegetation, in interandean valleys or not exposed mountain slopes, with rain shadow effect. Graphic geobotanical generalized geobotanical interpretation based on Galán et al. (2015) pro part. and Google Earth images.

  Part of: Navarro G, Luebert F, Molina JA (2023) South American terrestrial biomes as geocomplexes: a geobotanical landscape approach. Vegetation Classification and Survey 4: 75-114.